Users usually subscribe to VPN providers, thinking that the service they pay for will protect their online privacy. But knowing that information can leak through a VPN can be scary and disturbing. There are three types of VPN leaks that can occur, so the ability to detect them will help users be ready to repair any leaks they may detect.
An IP address is a string of numbers separated by dots that is assigned by your ISP to specific computers or smart devices. When you visit Internet sites, your IP address is linked to your searches, clicks, and visits.
There are currently two types of IP addresses. The original protocol is called IPv4 and the newer protocol is IPv6. The new protocol is designed to provide even more IP addresses in the world. Currently, many VPN service providers support only IPv4 addresses, which can lead to IP address leaks.
Domain Name Systems (DNS) converts IP addresses into URLs with more familiar domain names and vice versa. This system works so that we do not need to remember the IP-address of the site every time we want to visit it.
When you visit websites, your operating system sends a DNS query to retrieve the IP address associated with the required domain. ISPs can then record each DNS query that comes from your operating system to retrieve your detailed online visit history. With a VPN, each DNS query will come from your VPN provider’s server, not from your ISP’s server, to secure your personal information. DNS leaks may occur when your conversion requests come from your personal DNS server and not from your VPN provider’s DNS server. In the event of such a leak, your browsing history will be disclosed, as well as your IP address and the location of your Internet Service Provider.
Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC), in essence, allows you to instantly transfer video, voice and messages to your browser.
This is a very useful peer-to-peer communication based on the browser, but users have found that WebRTC opens certain vulnerabilities in the VPN. Such leaks occur in popular browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Brave and Opera. With just a few lines of code, any website can reveal your IP address and location.